Intelligent street light control system PCB design and assembly

Intelligent street light control system PCB design and assembly is a complex process involving many aspects.

Below I will introduce in detail the design process, component selection, PCB layout, board making, welding, etc.

Design Flow

  1. Requirements analysis: Clarify the functional requirements of the system, such as brightness adjustment, timer switch, fault detection, etc., as well as the required hardware interfaces, such as sensor interfaces, communication interfaces, etc.
  2. Schematic design: Based on demand analysis, design the schematic diagram of the system and determine the connection method and circuit logic of each component.
  3. PCB design: Convert schematic diagram into PCB diagram, conduct PCB wiring, component layout, etc.
  4. Processing and manufacturing: Submit the designed PCB diagram to the PCB processing factory for board manufacturing to obtain the actual circuit board.
  5. Component procurement and preparation: According to the component list on the PCB, purchase the corresponding components and make preparations before welding.
  6. Assembly and welding: Weld the components according to the layout on the PCB to complete the assembly of the entire system.
  7. Testing and debugging: Test and debug the assembled system to ensure its normal function.
  8. Document writing: Write relevant technical documents, such as circuit diagrams, component lists, instructions for use, etc.

Component selection

In the intelligent street light control system, the following main components need to be selected:

  1. Main controller: Select a microcontroller or microcontroller with the required functions, such as STM32, 51 microcontroller, etc.
  2. Power module: Provides various voltages required by the system, such as 5V, 3.3V, etc.
  3. Sensors: such as brightness sensors, human body sensors, etc., used to detect ambient light and human activity.
  4. Communication module: such as WiFi module, Bluetooth module, etc., used to realize remote control and data transmission.
  5. LED lamp beads and drive circuit: For street light sources, appropriate lamp beads and drive circuits need to be selected according to actual needs.
  6. Other auxiliary components, such as capacitors, resistors, diodes, etc.

When selecting components, factors such as their performance parameters, packaging form, price, etc. need to be considered to ensure system performance and cost-effectiveness.

PCB layout

PCB layout is a very important part of the entire design process, which directly affects the performance and reliability of the system. When laying out, you need to pay attention to the following points:

  1. Component arrangement: Arrange the components reasonably on the PCB according to the function and signal flow of the circuit to improve the reliability and maintainability of the system.
  2. Power loop: Reasonably plan the power loop to reduce current distribution and loop inductance to improve the stability and efficiency of the power supply.
  3. Signal integrity: Ensure signal integrity and anti-interference, reduce signal delay and reflection, and improve system stability and reliability.
  4. Thermal design: Consider the heat dissipation of components, especially high-power components, and rationally plan the heat dissipation path.
  5. Spacing and connection: Ensure that the spacing between components is appropriate to facilitate welding and maintenance; at the same time, ensure that the connections between components are correct and reliable.
  6. Board shape: Considering the mechanical processing and assembly requirements of PCB, the shape and size of PCB should be ensured to be reasonable.
  7. Clear markings: Clearly mark component locations, pin numbers and other information on the PCB to facilitate welding and debugging.
  8. Grounding treatment: Reasonably plan the grounding wire to reduce the grounding resistance and potential difference, and improve the anti-interference ability and stability of the system.
  9. Redundancy and expansion: Reserve a certain amount of space and redundant pins for possible future expansion or modification.

Board making

Submit the designed PCB diagram to a professional PCB processing factory for board manufacturing. During this process, you need to pay attention to the following points:

  1. Choose the appropriate plate material and thickness: Choose the appropriate plate material and thickness such as FR4 or CEM-1 according to actual needs.
  2. Ensure process requirements: Choose appropriate processes according to design requirements, such as gold plating, immersion gold, etc., to improve welding reliability and electrical performance.
  3. Check the Gerber file: Before submitting the PCB drawing to the processing factory, you need to carefully check the Gerber file to ensure that it is consistent with the design file.
  4. Follow up on production progress: Communicate production progress and problems with processing plants in a timely manner to ensure on-time delivery of PCBs.
  5. PCB acceptance: After receiving the PCB, its appearance and size must be carefully inspected to ensure that there are no defects or problems.
  6. PCB testing: Before assembly, a multimeter and other tools can be used to test key points on the PCB to ensure that its electrical performance is normal.


The following points need to be noted during the welding process:

  1. Component screening and inspection: Ensure that the purchased components meet the design requirements and check their quality.
  2. Preparation before welding: Clean the welding surface to ensure there are no impurities and oxide layers.
  3. Welding temperature: Choose the appropriate welding temperature to avoid being too high or too low to avoid damaging components or affecting the welding quality.
  4. Welding time: Control the appropriate welding time to ensure that the solder joints can fully melt and form a good mechanical connection.
  5. Solder quality: Choose appropriate solder, such as lead-free solder or environmentally friendly solder, to meet environmental protection requirements.
  6. Solder joint inspection: After welding is completed, the quality of the solder joints should be carefully checked to ensure that they are complete, smooth, and free of bubbles.
  7. Cleaning and maintenance: If necessary, use a suitable cleaning agent to remove residues and use a protective agent for maintenance.
  8. Avoid thermal damage: When soldering, avoid thermal damage to the PCB and other components.
  9. Component arrangement and direction: Ensure that components are welded in the correct arrangement and direction.
  10. Post-welding testing: After welding is completed, conduct a preliminary functional test to ensure there are no obvious faults.

Testing and Debugging

After completing the welding, the intelligent street light control system needs to be tested and debugged to ensure its normal function and stable performance. The following points need to be noted during this process:

  1. Power supply test: Check whether the output voltage and current of the power module are normal and meet the design requirements.
  2. Sensor test: Test the brightness sensor, human body sensor, etc. to ensure their normal function.
  3. LED lamp bead test: Check whether the brightness, color, direction, etc. of the LED lamp bead meet the design requirements, and conduct a lighting test.
  4. Communication module test: Test the WiFi module, Bluetooth module, etc. to ensure that they can communicate normally.
  5. Functional testing: According to the design requirements, perform functional testing on the entire system, such as timer switch, brightness adjustment, etc.
  6. Performance testing: Test the performance parameters of the system, such as response time, stability, etc.
  7. Fault detection and troubleshooting: During the test process, if a fault or problem is discovered, troubleshooting should be carried out and the cause and solution of the problem should be recorded.
  8. Debugging records: During the debugging process, detailed debugging records should be kept to facilitate subsequent maintenance and upgrades.
  9. Safety test: During the test process, the safety of the system should be ensured, such as overload protection, short circuit protection, etc.
  10. Environmental adaptability test: Test under different environmental conditions to ensure that the system has good environmental adaptability.


After completing the design and assembly of the smart street light control system, relevant technical documents should be prepared, such as circuit diagrams, component lists, instructions for use, etc.

These documents are very important for subsequent maintenance and upgrades. When writing documentation, you need to pay attention to the following points:

  1. Document format: Choose the appropriate document format, such as PDF, Word, etc., for easy reading and printing.
  2. Complete content: Ensure that the document content is complete, including circuit diagrams, component lists, instructions for use, etc.
  3. Clear and easy to understand: The content of the document should be clear and easy to understand, and avoid using overly technical terms so that it can be easily understood by non-professionals.
  4. Version control: For subsequent modifications and upgrades, the document should be version controlled, and the modification time and content should be noted in the document.
  5. Backup and Storage: Back up and store documents in a safe location to prevent loss or damage.
  6. Rights management: If necessary, perform rights management on documents to protect intellectual property and confidential information.
  7. Continuous updates: Continuously update technical documents according to system improvements and upgrades.

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